This involves the use of multiple modes of communication including but not limited to visual, written, and verbal communication. On the whole smaller-scale studies appear to be more prevalent. These principles, however, are best viewed through a critical lens that highlights cautions for teachers engaged in inclusive teaching. Inclusion & Special Education Multiple videos of varying length and specific aspects. From kindergarten to calculus class, auditory learners will be some of the most engaged and responsive members of any classroom. Fluencies in terms of various communicative modalities can be built: for example, enhancing listening and verbal skills, or improving comprehension and construction of written work. Physical (kinesthetic): You prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch. Technology is an ever and rapidly evolving field and what is available for students and teachers to use in one year is often outdated and supplanted by newer technologies the next. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). One of the major contributing pieces of research to the IPAA was by Florian and Black-Hawkins (2011). Inclusive Education is a challenge for teachers who must instruct a classroom including a combination of children with diversified needs and children with special needs. The first principle, multiple means of engagement, advocates the presentation of a variety of ways for students to become involved in the learning. In a study of more than 600 educators, Villa and Next, McGhie-Richmond and de Bruin highlighted the value of technology in mediating and supporting self-directed learning. With DI a frank and pragmatic acknowledgment of difference becomes important at the outset, as adjustments and adaptations are made so as to provide all individual learners with the opportunity to engage in rich and meaningful learning. Figure 2: Katz’s (2012) 3-block model of UDL. How to Promote Classroom Inclusion. If you are an auditory learner, try these strategies to improve your learning experience. Teacher and Students' Perceptions of a Modified Inclusion Classroom Environment, Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education, 2 (5). potential inclusive model, as practical guidelines for Thai inclusive schools. Katz’s Three-Block model offers a different perspective on UDL, while at the same time honoring, incorporating, and in no way contradicting the key work of David Rose and colleagues in this area. In a differentiated classroom, teachers recognize that all students are different and require varied teaching methods to be successful in school” (p. 6). These students would much rather listen to a lecture than read written notes, and they often use their own voices to reinforce new concepts and ideas. This can be a challenge in an environment where much essential infor… When teachers can reflect and come to these conclusions they are in a better position to move forward and truly adopt inclusive ways of teaching. Critical analysts extend their work beyond texts to include discourses in general, which can be interpreted as examining verbal, visual, and other types of discourse in addition to that which is written. Individual differences are acknowledged, but such differences can and should be catered for in the course of everyday teaching and learning. Based on approaches that appear to have been effective, a set of principles for the development and implementation of inclusive education pedagogy, as identified in the academic literature, can be discerned. The second assumption is that teachers must believe that they are qualified to and capable of teaching all. This is all done in order to produce purposeful, motivated learners. For example, their range of vocabulary may be limited, which in turn may affect their level of English literacy. education resources, and more time should be spent on research in other fields to guide teaching and learning. Pappano (2011) argues that there is a gap between theory and practice, with some students expressing discontent when they noticed that their assignment was different to that of other children even as the approach was implemented by an experienced teacher in the area. Methods of critical analyses range from fairly basic and unrefined examinations of texts and discourses that can be conducted by most people, to highly complex deconstructions that require a significant degree of training and experience on the part of the person conducting the study. Snyder (1999) argues that the “inclusion movement has primarily been a special education movement” (p. 175). Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education, Educational Administration and Leadership, Inclusive Pedagogy as Derived From Special Education Practice, The Inclusive Pedagogical Approach in Action Framework (IPAA), Pedagogy for Inclusive Education: Some General Principles from the Literature, https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.148, Lessons learned from research on individual educational plans in Sweden: Obstacles, opportunities and future challenges, The effect of the differentiated teaching approach in the algebraic learning field on students’ academic achievements, Enacting inclusion: A framework for interrogating inclusive practice, Implementing the three block model of universal design for learning: Effects on teachers’ self-efficacy, stress, and job satisfaction in inclusive classrooms K–12, A Canada-Ukraine collaborative initiative for inclusive education in Ukraine: Participant perspectives, Factors contributing to the implementation of inclusive education in Pacific Island countries, How do we make inclusive education happen when exclusion is a political pre-disposition, “Bring your own device (BYOD)” for seamless science inquiry in a primary school, Fostering personalized learning in science inquiry supported by mobile technologies, Evaluating the impact of differentiated instruction on literacy and reading in mixed ability classrooms: Quality and equity dimensions of education effectiveness, Inclusive Education and European Educational Policy, A Collaborative Process for Incorporating Universal Design for Learning and Evidence-Based Practice into Inclusive Teacher Education Programs, In-Service Teacher Training for Inclusion, Social Emotional Learning and Inclusion in Schools, Assistive Technology to Enhance Inclusive Education, Preparing to Teach in Inclusive Classrooms, Sociocultural Perspectives on Curriculum, Pedagogy, and Assessment to Support Inclusive Education, Developing Inclusive Schools in South Africa, Inclusive and Special Education Services in Rural Settings, Creating Engaging Classrooms for All Learners, Universal Design for Learning: Changing the Way We Interact with Diversity. The process of transferring special education pedagogical practices to inclusive contexts, if we engage in this process at all, must be done thoughtfully and always with the awareness that such practices were nurtured in segregated environments and may themselves serve to perpetuate segregation. Pedagogy for inclusive education continues to evolve in line with our views on difference, inclusion, and exclusion. Diversity is present and must be accounted for so as to ensure an elimination of learners on the margins. Also information will be given about models of disability which influenced idea of inclusion. This responds to the criticism of Pappano (2011) that DI singles out and stigmatizes some students who notice that they are doing different work from other students, and Florian (2015) who notes that in differentiating we identify those on the margins first—an activity that inevitably leads to exclusion. In this topic, general information about inclusion will be presented which include a brief history towards inclusion and definitions of inclusion. Of the three main models discussed in this article, only DI might be seen as having been relatively comprehensively researched; and even then there exist some gaps. Without effective pedagogy we have no operative method of education and, without purposeful and effective inclusive pedagogy, we have no basis for meaningful inclusion. According to Katz (2012), “Creating inclusive learning communities requires changes to educational policy, budgeting, staffing, training, and interactions with communities—indeed, a major reworking of the whole system” (p. 24). The article focuses on the main concepts in Vygotsky`s theory on dysontogenesis (presented as a social constructionist view on disability), constituting the cultural-historical psychological basis for the Russian model in the contemporary inclusive preschool education. In committing to this style of practice a teacher assumes responsibility for all learners in a class, a habit that has become sometimes compromised by the presence of other professionals and supports that have, in many cases, relieved the teacher of the full responsibility of educating all children. There are a multiplicity of DI techniques, including but not limited to allowing extra time on tests and assignments, permitting different ways of taking tests, extension activities, adapting assignments for individual students, cooperative and collaborative learning in pairs or groups, project-based learning (individually or in pairs or groups), and a focus on Gardner’s (1983) Multiple Intelligence Theory. Each of the models examined in this article make it clear that inclusive pedagogy does not ignore difference. Verbal (linguistic): You prefer using words, both in speech and writing. Since the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which advocates the placement of special needs students in the least restrictive classroom environment, children with hearing loss have increasingly been included in mainstream settings. In doing so the contributions of all contribute to the overall learning that has occurred. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Outlining beliefs and assumptions upon which thinking and acting rest. Block 2, Inclusive pedagogy, draws heavily on the CAST model and advocates for the use of multiple means of engagement, representation, and action and expression. As the IPAA is a relatively new model for inclusive pedagogy it has not yet been the subject of significant research into its efficacy, although there has been some conceptualization regarding implementation if the approach. Inclusive education is a contested concept, with the underlying practices and meanings varying from region to region. This can be especially effective if done in collaboration with teaching colleagues so that the various issues can be explored from a range of viewpoints through dialogue. CONCEPT OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Inclusive education is the process of strengthening the capacity of education system to reach out to all learners as a strategy to achieve education for all. Sousa and Tomlinson (2011, p. 9) highlight a series of “non-negotiables” with respect to the implementation of DI. Here are some of the strengths that will help them achieve success in the classroom: Those with an auditory learning style like to speak and hear others speak in order to learn, but they may have trouble reading silently or staying engaged in a completely quiet classroom. There is no proof that children with no developmental difficulties are neglected in this working model (Stanković Đorđević 2002: 152). Katz recommends the use of backward design (Wiggins & McTighe, 2006) in developing instructional plans, and the organization of curricula into thematic units that are then sequenced according to a logical framework (for example, conceptually or perhaps seasonally). Inclusion has now been accepted by countries worldwide in line with the Universal declaration of the Rights of Child. The underlying premise of the IPAA differs from that on which approaches such as DI are based. Any suggested pedagogical approach can be deconstructed through a research method known as critical discourse analysis. The performance expectations of teachers are raised, which in and of itself can be viewed as another positive outcome of inclusive teaching. Third, the provision of options for perception is important. Auditory-oral programs keep the child in a special class until the child is “ready” for inclusion. This requires more of teachers in terms of professional skill, judgment, adaptability, flexibility, and willingness to grow as professionals. At the school level, teachers must be trained, buildings must be refurbished and students must receive accessible learning materials. UDL is reaching a critical point in its development where more research perhaps should and could have been done on the effectiveness of the approach, but this is still not apparent. For example, is there a bias toward a particular theory of learning such as social constructivism, and if so is this helpful or not helpful? This is probably because the models used were never conceived to include all learners in the first instance and in some cases have been out of touch with the nuances of local cultures. Although DI presents in many varied forms in classrooms throughout the world it has been found to be an effective instructional approach. What assumptions and beliefs form the basis of the pedagogical approach? Students must be given choices with respect to the learning they are to engage in. Do you benefit from in-class discussions and receive great marks for class participation? 2 In a truly inclusive setting, every child feels safe and has a sense of belonging. One of the more recent contributions to the area of pedagogy for inclusive education that is garnering some attention is the IPAA developed by Florian and Spratt (2013). Most teachers did not grow up surrounded by the sorts of technology that the students of today come to school having experienced and so have an obligation to become informed about what exists, what is helpful, what is dangerous, and what is simply pointless. They outlined modes through which this may be accomplished, including via electronic surveys on tablets or computers, or other means. While they are currently drifting slowly out of favor in some areas of the world, IEPs are still used today in many mainstream contexts with the intent of promoting the inclusion of children with disabilities, language learning, behavior, or other issues. Larger-scale investigations of each of the pedagogies discussed in this article are therefore needed. They must also accept that difference is part of being human and believe that under the right conditions all children can progress. In order to be inclusive and to avoid segregation, all school contexts can become more responsive to children with a diverse range of abilities, cultures, genders, religions, and other situations and issues that present in the classroom. The asking of these and similar questions with respect to inclusive pedagogy, even in a fairly rudimentary way, can assist educators to evaluate the merits and suitability of an approach with respect to their context and personal views. JISC, Supporting an inclusive learning experience. Compared to schools that did not engage in DI practices they found that those schools that did were positively and significantly associated with differences in student achievement in both mathematics and reading. Auditory learners need to listen, speak, and interact in order to learn. Rather, giving teachers (both regular and special education) the opportunity to collaborate and develop new skills is a prerequisite for success. What differentiated instruction means. Block 1, Socioemotional learning, involves “… developing schools that are compassionate learning communities in which all students feel safe and valued, and which give them a sense of belonging” (Katz, 2012, p. 23). 2. Growing up near the Dorchester/Mattapan border, his first language was Spanish until the age of five, and his reading skills faltered in elementary and middle school. At the heart of this model is a process involving promoting personal learning traits, communicating effectively, and providing a variety of options for the completion of goal-directed tasks. Complex though it might seem at times, what remains a constant is a respect for the learning of all and a desire and a willingness to better cater to the needs of all children via the ways in which they learn and we teach them. They conducted a qualitative study of 11 Scottish teachers who taught across age ranges at two schools. Includes videos on strategies. The adoption of differentiated instructional strategies came about as a response to some of the disadvantages inherent in the traditional approach to teaching in classrooms. If so, you may be an auditory learner. Katz’s Three-Block Model of UDL is on a good research trajectory and the IPAA is still too new to reasonably expect a large body of evidence to be currently available on its effectiveness. Introduction. With UDL the provision of “multiple means” is critical to each step of the process, from promoting student engagement, to representing and communicating, and then on to student action and expression. Auditory learners. The dilemmas faced are viewed as dilemmas for teaching rather than as being an inherent problem of the student’s. Technology-assisted instruction is closely linked to UDL in the research literature on this topic as it is often the process by which multiple means of engagement, representation, and action and expression are mediated. It must be intentionally, specifically, and carefully employed by teachers (McGhie-Richmond & de Bruin, 2015). Third, Meyer and colleagues recognize that options for what they refer to as “recruiting interest” must be provided. Many of them are still evident in classrooms around the world today. Katz’s model builds on the CAST work, incorporating it into a middle “block” that is bookended by socioemotional learning (Block 1) and systems and structures that support the process (Block 3). Call on auditory learners to answer questions. Whether or not one is sympathetic to this point of view it must be acknowledged that the adoption of inclusive pedagogical approach does represent new ways of working for teachers, and requires the adoption of different points of view. Introduction. Inclusive education allows students of all backgrounds to learn and grow side by side, to the benefit of all. A study in Cyprus by Valiandes (2015) involving a sample of 24 teachers and 479 grade 4 students yielded similar conclusions, with the use of DI in mixed-ability classrooms producing positive effects on student achievement. This involves providing very clear goals and objectives, challenging students through increasing demands as their capacities and resources increase, fostering collaboration through group projects, and increasing feedback when mastery-oriented objectives have been met. Because UDL is principle based it is inherently flexible and adaptable to local classroom contexts and circumstances. What is being taken for granted in the pedagogical approach under consideration? Students and their parents participate in setting learning goals and take part in decisions that affect them. While the Rose and colleagues (2014) CAST UDL model is the most well known, there are other frameworks that complement and/or re-frame CAST. Importantly, some of the challenges that feature in the IPAA were also discerned, in part, through this study. That is, it must be safe, challenging, and supportive for each student. Auditory-Verbal therapists are professionals who have been trained at the Master’s level in one or more of the disciplines of speech pathology, audiology, or education of the deaf. Schools are replete with practices that reinforce these views, one of the most common being the widely accepted but largely smoke-and-mirrors practice of psychological testing of students to determine eligibility for special needs funding and service. Auditory learners generally remember what their teacher says and readily participate in class. The UNESCO emphasized that schools are to provide inclusive education for all Links to related videos. Each of the five senses may be employed here in an effort to produce a holistic style of communication. Reading progress was comparable in both settings. The idea is to address those needs—whether for remediation or acceleration—that, if unattended to, will most likely impede student growth. 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