Chennai, Formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city.wikipedia. Francis Day wrote to his headquarters at Masulipatam for permission to inspect the proposed site at Madraspatnam and to examine the possibilities of trade there. Lastly, while the Fort St. George, White Town, and Black Town areas were fully incorporated together by the late 18th century, and was known as Madras, Chennapatnam was its own separate entity existing under the authority of Fort St. George well into the 19th century. Lal Mahal of Pune is one of the most famous monuments of Pune. It was built during the rule of Marathas. In 1996, keeping with the recent nationwide practice of Indianizing city names, the Government of Tamil Nadu, then represented by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, renamed the city to Chennai. Thus it is improbable that the area was ever called Chennai. The present parts of Chennai like Poonamalee (ancient Tamil name - Poo Iruntha valli), Triplicane (ancient Tamil name - Thiru alli keni) are mentioned in Tamil bhakti literature of the 6th - 9th centuries.Thomas Pitt became the Governor of Madras in 1698 and governed for eleven years. In 1906, the city experienced a financial crisis with the failure of its leading merchant bank, Arbuthnot & Co. The main difficulty, among the English those days, was a lack of money. In fact, in all records of the times, a difference is made between the original village of Madraspatnam and the new town growing around the Fort known as "White Town". The region was then a part of the Vijayanagara Empire, then headquartered at Chandragiri in present-day Andhra Pradesh. The crew of a merchant ship also destroyed by the Germans that night. Under this Charter, the British and Protestant inhabitants were granted the rights of self-government and independence from company law. After India gained independence in 1947, Chennai became the capital of Madras State. Although they remained in control of the original corporations and businesses of Madras, and were the official representatives of the Imperial government, their communities size relative to the larger Indian population in Madras ensured their eventual demise should democratic control be given to Indian nationalities in place of the older Colonial charters. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency and thus became home to important commercial organisations. Instead, being the gateway of trade and the centre of the economy of the region, the English settlement and their fort of 1639–40, which was the basis for the presently named city of Chennai, was likely called Madras as well by the rest of India. In the latter part of the 17th century, Madras steadily progressed during the period of the East India Company and under many Governors. The 1783 version of Fort St George is what still stands today. The History of Tamil Nadu dates back to 6000 years. Clear[x] 5 ★ Rediscover History at Alamparai Fort. Unakoti is an archaeological venue in Tripura. The face of the new-verse movement was a frail looking writer who spoke through his strong characters. By 1646, the settlement had reached 19,000 persons and with the Portuguese and Dutch populations at their forts substantially more. The region then passed into the hands of the Dutch, who established themselves near Pulicat just north of the city in 1612. The English soon realized that the port Armagon was unsuitable for trade purposes. Although the British had lost most of their well-populated, industrious, and wealthy North American colonies, after a decade's feud with the French, they were securely in control of Madras and most of the Indian trade. It can be broadly divided into Ancient, Medieval and Modern Tamil Nadu. This place was supposedly named so by Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, Nayak of Vandavasi in remembrance of his father Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu. In 1788, Thomas Parry arrived in Madras as a free merchant and he set up one of the oldest mercantile companies in the city and one of the oldest in the country (EID Parry). It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. On 20 August 1639, Francis Day of the East India Company along with Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu traveled to Chandragiri palace to meet the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya and to obtain a grant for a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities. During the course of the late 17th century, both plague and genocidal warfare reduced the population of the colony dramatically. Population of Telugu's and Tamils were more or less the same in those days, however dynamics of Madras city was changed post independence rapidly. Chintadrepettah Madras City Francis Day history and heritage of Chennai city History of Chennai in 1700s. This only furthered to mitigate continued British settlement. It’s a bustling Indian city home to many sea beaches, British colonial architecture, newly developed markets, and some of the oldest temples in the world. This was also surrounded by a wall. Chennai History in Tamil 10.0 download - சென்னை நகரத்தில் வந்து குடி ஏறும் மக்களின் எண்ணிக்கை நாளுக்கு நாள் அதிகமாகிக் கொண்டே போகிறது. He was also an influential Nayak ruler under the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya then based in Chandragiri-Vellore Fort, was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city when the English East India Company arrived to establish a factory in the area.[2][3]. Learn more about the history and characteristics of Chennai in this article. As a result, during the Governorship of Elihu Yale (1687–92), the large number of British and European settlers led to the most important political event which was the formation of the institution of a Mayor and the Corporation for the city of Madras. Modern Chennai had its origins as a colonial city and its initial growth was closely tied to its importance as an artificial harbour and trading center. To differentiate these non-European and non-Christian area from "White Town", the new settlement was termed "Black Town. As a result, owing to the frequency of outbursts of racial and national violence against the Europeans and especially the English, Fort St George with its impressive fortifications became the nucleus around which the city grew and rebuilt itself. While most of the original city of Madras was built and settled by Europeans, the surrounding area which was later incorporated included the native temples of Thiruvanmiyur, Thiruvotriyur, Thiruvallikeni (Triplicane), and Thirumayilai (Mylapore) which have existed for more than 2000 years. Although most of the original Portuguese, Dutch, and British population had been killed during genocides during the Golkonda period, under Moghul protection, large numbers of British and Anglo-American settlers arrived to replenish these losses. Following the British victory in the Seven Years' War they eventually dominated, driving the French, the Dutch and the Danes away entirely, and reducing the French dominions in India to four tiny coastal enclaves. This spot also has the importance of pilgrimage tourism. The Pallavas held sway over this region from the beginning of the 3rd century to the closing years of the 9th century, except for the interval of some decades when the region was under the Kalabhras. The grant signed between Damarla Venkatadri and the English had to be authenticated or confirmed by the Raja of Chandragiri - Venkatapathy Rayulu. They began construction of the Fort St George on 23 April 1640 and houses for their residence. In the early 17th century Beri Thimmappa of the Puragiri Kshatriya (Perike) caste migrated to the locality from Palacole, near Machilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh. But there is some consensus that it is an abbreviation of Madraspatnam, the site chosen by the British East India Company for a permanent settlement in 1639.[15]. History of Chennai, Tamil Nadu Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India`s fourth largest city. Each time the town and later city was rebuilt and repopulated with new English and European settlers. In 1693, a perwanna was received from the local Nawab granting the towns of Tondiarpet, Purasawalkam and Egmore to the company which continued to rule from Fort St. George. Angry 13%. Unmoved 7%. India. [11] The dispute arose as over the preceding hundred years, the early British, European workers and small cottage capitalists had been replaced in large part by both Tamil and Telugu speaking people. In 1969 Madras state was renamed as the state of Tamil Nadu. However, other national groups, chiefly FrenchPortuguese, and other Catholic merchants had separate agreements with the Nayak which allowed them in turn to establish trading posts, factories, and warehouses. Chennai, originally known as "Madras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. Chennai Tamil: சென்னை formerly known as Madras.ogg Madras is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Although, Madraspatnam is named in later records following the establishment of Fort St. George, this is likely because of the discriminatory nature of the local caste system. Ancient Tamil Nadu contained three monarchical states, headed by kings called Ventar and several tribal chieftaincies, headed by the chiefs called by the general denomination Vel or Velir.During the third century BCE, the Deccan was part of the Mauryan kingdom, and from the middle of the first century BCE to second century CE the same area was ruled by the Satavahana dynasty. Friends, Family, Historical Places 1 out of 10 best historical places places to visit in Chennai. After the fall of Golkonda in 1687, the region came under the rule of the Mughal Emperors of Delhi who in turn granted new Charters and territorial borders for the area. This new area saw a proliferation of English merchant and planter families who, allied with their wealthy Indian counterparts, jointly controlled Chennapatnam under the supervision of White Town. Parry’s Corner - Chennai 600001. Bappaswami, who is considered as the ruler to rule from Kanchipuram, was himself a chieftain (of the tract around) at Kanchipuram under the Satavahana empire in the beginning of the 3rd century. The Pandyas under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan rose to power and the region was brought under the Pandya rule by putting an end to Chola supremacy in 1264. 1st century CE was ruled under the Cholas. The crisis also imperiled Parry & Co and Binny & Co, but both found rescuers. The modern city of "Chennai" arose from the British settlement of Fort St. George and its subsequent expansion through merging numerous native villages and European settlements around Fort St. George into the city of Madras. As a result, over time, the area came to be known as 'White Town'. The original building which housed Spencer & Co. was burnt down in a fire in 1983 and the present structure houses one of the largest shopping malls in India, Spencer Plaza. He was the local governor for the last Raja of Chandragiri, Sri Ranga Raya VI of Vijayanagar Empire. A new grant was issued, copies of which are still available. Beri Thimmappa, Francis Day's dubash (interpreter), was a close friend of Damarla Ayyappa Nayakudu. These settlers and their families spread throughout India or settled in the cities, with Madras being one of their principal entry points. Other prominent companies in the city included Gordon Woodroffe, Best & Crompton, Higginbotham's, Hoe & Co and P. Orr & Sons. In turn they resettled the non-European merchants and their families and workers, almost entirely Muslim or of various Hindu castes outside of the newly expanded "White Town". Elihu Yale, after whom Yale University is named, was British governor of Madras for five years. 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