It recommends a generic ‘nested’ sampling approach, and gives guidance on a range of data collection methods. The principles and relationships described in this conceptual framework are by necessity general as the purpose here is to create a framework that is broadly applicable across contexts. Livelihood outcomes Livelihood outcomes are the achievements of livelihood strategies. ii. livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation; and They can increase access to information and reduce transactions costs. The livelihood assets, Secure livelihoods for all its citizens should indeed be a policy priority for any government. Whilst rural people may seek improvements across a wide range of livelihood outcomes the need to prioritise may force them to make undesirable trade-offs between them, at least in the short term. I believe that the skills dimension of livelihood security must take into account the fact that skilling is not a one-time process; rather, it is a life-cycle process, which must engage with large numbers of people over the 30 or 40 years of their working life. Finally, they can increase people's power and influence. In particular, the framework: • provides a checklist of important issues and sketches out the way these link to each other; In this unit, we adopt the classification used by Ellis (2000), which is based on the following. It seeks to understand the various dimensions of a person's livelihood; the strategies and objectives pursued, and associated opportunities and constraints. Carney (ed)., 1998; Scoones, 1998). The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). Such investments may help to build trust and facilitate co-operation. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Poor urban people often also depend upon multiple diverse livelihood activities involving different employment (labouring) and self employment activities. INTEGRATING CONCEPTS & COMPONENTS 30 BIBLIOGRAPHY 32 Livelihood & Food Security Conceptual Framework • 1 2.6 The Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Framework (1998) 9 2.7 Natural Resources Department’s SLA initiative 10 2.8 Inter-agency working 12 2.9 Late 1990s research connecting the macro and micro 12 2.10 The 2000 White Paper 13 3 The Key Research/Policy/Practice Interactions … Because cultures co-evolve with their changing environments, sustaining livelihoods has … Over the longer term, the variables in the 'livelihood security' box, the 'environmental sustainability' box, and the 'livelihood assets' box can act positively on each other, providing that appropriate livelihood strategies are adopted. For India, where this goal seems so distant, it is an economic, social and political imperative. 5.3 Specific Livelihood Interventions for Households Located at Different Outcomes on the Livelihood Pathway 25 5.4 Targeting Livelihood Interventions to More Vulnerable Groups 28 6. Livelihood Systems A Conceptual Framework (PDF) Rural livelihood systems : A conceptual framework As can be seen in the figure, the livelihood system is embedded in a wider environment and interfaces with other systems. A livelihood is said to be sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks to maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future. In addition to the biophysical data, a focus of the database framework lies also on the human side of climate change impacts and the consequent needs and options for adaptation. Tjikurrpa (belief system, philosophy, lore) 1. In 2.2.1 you will find one adapted from Ellis (2000). Component 2: Livelihood Improvement and Diversification: will enhance Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Production Systems. A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living (Chambers & Conway 1988). Assets in this framework include: human capital (the education, skills and health of household SLF To shed light on possible solutions, this study employs the conceptual framework of sustainable livelihood and the multinomial logit model. The objective and Importance of sustainable livelihood framework is to increase people control of their natural resources, build reliable and fair access to food. Note also that, whilst improved access to livelihood assets and the outcome of greater livelihood security (especially higher incomes, more stable incomes, and reduced risk) are usually important objectives in rural livelihood strategies, environmental sustainability may or may not be an objective. Study the diagram and see whether you can see possible relationships between the different variables listed in columns A to F. In discussing this we start at the centre, columns D and E, then move to the right (column F) before coming back to columns A to C. The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. social capital, financial/economic capital, physical capital, activities, and livelihood strategies. Sustainable livelihood. NUSAF 2 (WFP) consists of three main components: i) a Public Works Programme, ii) a Household Income Support Programme, and iii) institutional development. The objective of those wishing to promote sustainable livelihoods is to minimise trade-offs of the sort discussed above and to maximise complementarities. Livelihood resources or assets 3. Indigenous Areas of Responsibility Yankunytjatjara elder - Bob Randall Kanyini – Four Principles. INTEGRATING CONCEPTS & COMPONENTS 30 BIBLIOGRAPHY 32 Livelihood & Food Security Conceptual Framework • 1. For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. For many years now, we have been both aspiring to create momentum in manufacturing employment and despairing about our inability to do so. At the centre of this paper, the livelihood approach aims to leverage both agricultural and non‐agricultural sectors equally in the analysis, focusing on livelihood assets and the role of policy interventions in explaining the process of change. It is exclusively funded by the government, which clearly imposes limits on its scale. 2Lanjouw and Sharif, (2002) have also indicated that in rural India, much of the … These facts led us to adopt the livelihood conceptual framework, which was implemented using a rural household database1, in ... Each capital comprises various components that are difficult to measure and aggregate. are normally adaptive responses to changes in six. Then, we have introduced the concept of ‘system’ before describing the SL framework. They may allow people to make claims on other people's obligations to support them, and can help in the development of informal safety nets amongst the poor. The livelihoods framework offers a conceptualisation that can help outsiders work together with the poor to identify the priorities of the poor and associated opportunities and constraints. I believe that the skills dimension of livelihood security must take into account the fact that skilling is not a one-time process; rather, it is a life-cycle process, which must engage with large numbers of people over the 30 or 40 years of their working life. First, about half of the country’s workforce is primarily employed in agriculture, typically an environment with relatively high income volatility and uncertainty. Income level is obviously important to people, but to poor people income stability and risk avoidance may be as important, if not more so. Giving employers flexibility to take on and lay off workers depending on business conditions will, in and of itself, encourage job creation. In this framework, governments and humanitarian actors all agree that over the next 12/18 months the socio-economic response will be one of one critical components of the COVID- 19 response. Increasing capacity and efficiency in infrastructure sectors, reducing the burden of regulatory compliance and, very importantly, removing barriers to inter-state movement of goods through the implementation of a full-fledged Goods and Services Tax (GST) will all contribute to manufacturing competitiveness through cost efficiencies and the full realization of scale economies. 2.2 The Sustainable Livelihood Framework The sustainable livelihood framework was elaborated by several development institutes for the purpose of analyzing and developing the livelihoods of poor rural households. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from the stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future without undermining the natural resource base (Chambers & Conway). Livelihood in Iran’s rural areas, as elsewhere in the developing world, is highly intertwined with the harvesting of environmental resources, leading to severe environmental degradation. Analyses of these components are important to examine the rural livelihood status and sustainable livelihood improvement. For this to happen, we have taken up Sustainable Livelihood (SL) framework (DFID, 1999) as a starting point, since this framework has been widely used in development practices. The second component, skills, is also a huge challenge. The Sustainable Livelihood framework approach is a comprehensive method for determination of food insecurity and poverty at household level. The sustainable livelihoods framework helps to organize the factors that constrain or enhance livelihood op-portunities and shows how they relate to one another. Sustainable livelihood framework is a tool for understanding how household livelihood system interacting with the outside environment. Variables which were used for principal component analysis were selected under the guidance of Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF), that gives broad explanation of the livelihoods of the poor and reveals major factors that influence people’s livelihoods (source: DFID). The main component of this framework about livelihood assets, namely human, natural, social, financial and physical capital is employed by this study. GENERAL OBJECTIVE The Food Security and Livelihood Project Manager (FSL PM) is responsible for the management and implementation of Food Security and Livelihood interventions in North Base and works under the supervision of … Time to pivot: The role of the energy transition and investors in forging resilient resource-rich country outcomes, Employment creation potential, labor skills requirements, and skill gaps for young people: A South African case study, Renewing US global engagement in a changed world. On jobs, in terms of the objectives laid out earlier, the key challenge is to create as many jobs as possible in activities outside of agriculture. The theme for this seminar addresses a very important aspect of an overall strategy, i.e. Observations & Analysis 9 Human Capital 17 Social Capital Natural Capital Physical Capital Financial Capital Market Analysis 10 22 26 27 30 10. Again, have a look at the diagram that we introduced earlier, to see what is listed under these different headings. While the institutional mechanisms set up for this, based on widely distributed franchising of skill development activities, industry involvement in content development, reliable certification and government financial support, is broadly the right way to go, the achievement thus far falls far short of the target. Effectively, the employer is being asked to provide livelihood security to the worker regardless of business conditions. Bear in mind, however, that the institutions that enhance one person's productivity may constrain or diminish the productivity of others. components of the framework are described in more detail in the subsequent sheets in this section. This constitutes their diversified livelihood portfolio. Livelihood Analysis Framework 6 5. This category of influences comes under a variety of different headings. The DFID has developed a ‘Sustainable Livelihood Framework’ (SLF) which is one of the most widely used livelihoods frameworks in development practice. These fluctuations are often dramatic and can profoundly affect livelihood security (Devereux et al 2011) People's livelihood strategies are designed, where possible, to reduce seasonal income fluctuations and the associated vulnerability. Jobs may be created, but without adequate numbers of workers with appropriate skills, wage pressures will erode the competitiveness of businesses. 3. an overall developmental objective. Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour marketsor l… • Sheets 4.1–4.4 examine the process of livelihoods analysis and provide an introduction to a range of common tools. By … The rapid expansion of appropriately skilled people was, and remains, a key policy objective. Conventional economics does not have a social capital category and precisely what social capital consists of is open to debate. The sustainable livelihoods framework in 3.1.1 is an effort to conceptualise livelihoods in a holistic way, capturing the many complexities of livelihoods, and the constraints and opportunities that they are subjected to. membership of formal groups or organisations, informal social interactions in and outside the workplace, relationships of reciprocity, including gift exchange and mutual assistance. On the whole, the more assets someone has the less vulnerable they are to various shocks and trends. Livelihood outcomes are the achievements or outputs of livelihood strategies, such as more income, increased well-being, reduce vulnerability, improved food security and a more sustainable use of natural resources. One can examine strategies from the perspective of an individual or from the perspective of a household, although, as we shall see later, there are problems with treating the 'household' as a unified decision-making unit pursuing a joint strategy with common goals. Note that in the 'shocks' box one might also add prices, since these can also change fairly suddenly. FIGURE 6: Use of livelihood capitals 35 BOXES BOX 1: Six principles for shock measurement 4 BOX 2: Operationalizing resilience with Oxfam 10 BOX 3: RIMA-II 12 BOX 4: FSIN Technical Working Group (TWG) Resilience Measurement Integrated Framework 16 BOX 5: … • Sheets 4.5–4.6 provide more detail on rapid and participatory methods and sample surveys. Seasonality refers to the fact that many rural livelihood strategies (especially in agriculture) result in seasonal fluctuations in income. Experience suggests that viable safety nets are financed by a combination of contributions from workers, employers and the government. The ultimate objective of these investment strategies is to improve long-term livelihood security and the quality of life of more generally. However, these are uncharted waters when it comes to broad-based public programmes, which are required teach already experienced people a relatively new and different set of skills. Better access to assets is a desirable outcome of any livelihood strategy. We have also added an additional feedback arrow to Ellis' original diagram to emphasise the (positive or negative) effects that livelihood strategies and outcomes can have on livelihood assets. Time Frame of the Study 6 7 7. The sustainable livelihoods framework helps to organize the factors that constrain or enhance livelihood op-portunities and shows how they relate to one another. interwoven into each of the components of the sustainable livelihoods framework, and in fact culture is a context in which livelihoods exist. sustainability, and livelihood strategies (e.g. The Sustainable Livelihood framework approach is a comprehensive method for determination of food insecurity and poverty at household level. They are also something people invest in so as to increase future flows of income/consumption. Methodology 7 8. nutritional status) or on criteria identified by the communities. A revised definition of a sustainable livelihood, and a revised framework were then developed which were more appropriate for this research. Content from the Brookings Institution India Center is now archived. That is why in the livelihoods framework the latter is usually labelled along with livelihood security as an outcome variable rather than as an objective. Identified key livelihood resources were categorised into community assets or capital: physical, financial, natural, social and human (Serrat, 2017; Forum for … We need to shift large numbers of people out of agriculture into relatively more stable employment situations, we need to rapidly increase the share of people employed in the organized sector and we need to give people who are self-employed at tiny scales opportunities to work in larger and less risky organizations. DFID's SL framework lists five 'categories' of livelihood outcomes: (1) more income, (2) increased well-being, (3) reduced vulnerability, (4) improved food security, (5) more sustainable use of the natural resource base. Earlier, I said that, while more flexible hire-and-fire rules will provide an incentive to employers to hire more workers under a formal contracting arrangement, it is not consistent with security. The paper proposes that livelihood strategies that include diversification and risk-spreading behaviour have been common features of inshore fishing in Europe, just as they are in low-income countries in the tropics. Livelihood outcomes or goals overall understanding of livelihoods, and a range of methods for tackling the key components of the SL framework. The object of the evaluation is the DFID-funded (2010-2013) WFP livelihood programme, a component of the Government of Uganda Northern Uganda Social Action Fund (NUSAF 2). and examines its potential as a framework to guide policy and management in the inshore fisheries of northern Europe. Although this is focused on rural livelihoods, most of its essential features also apply to many urban livelihoods. 1. Further, we must keep in mind that the thrust of skilling programmes, quite legitimately of course, is on job market entrants – young adults just leaving school or soon after. Some sub-components such as the ‘average agricultural livelihood diversity index’ were created because an increase in the crude indicator, in this case, the number of livelihood activities undertaken by a household, was assumed to decrease vulnerability. • Country Programming Framework (CPF): Regarding the FAO and the Senegalese government’s collaboration priorities for the 2013-2017 period (Country Programming Framework), the project will support the priority area 1, namely by improving the productivity and competitivity of agricultural products through Output 1. When thinking about livelihood outcomes, the aims of a particular group as well as the extent to One important step in the right direction is the abolition of job security regulations, which impose an undue cost on the employer – almost like a tax on jobs – which deters rather than encourages job creation. 2.2.1 A framework for micro policy analysis of rural livelihoods. Components of Sustainable Indigenous Livelihood (SIL) Theoretical framework of a SIL. In relation to livelihood security, take particular note of the distinction between income level, income stability (or regularity), and degrees of risk. A central notion is that different households have differ-ent access livelihood assets, which the sustainable livelihood approach aims to expand. In this context, the recent legislative reforms carried out by the government of Rajasthan are a potential breakthrough. There is very little livelihood security for people trained in a particular skill, who are displaced every few years by a new generation. 8-9) or 'policies, institutions and processes' (a more recent classification). From a livelihood security perspective, re-skilling must become a critical component of the skills strategy. Outcomes are measured to determine how successful households are in their livelihood strategies. Of course, this is not the complete answer. and examines its potential as a framework to guide policy and management in the inshore fisheries of northern Europe. security. Finally, it is worth noting that participation is central to the livelihoods approach. Such outcome measures need to be differentiated and disaggregated across groups, households and individuals. One point I want to flag here is that more flexible hire and fire rules, while they may help to generate new jobs, do not intrinsically contribute to livelihood security. Principal of livelihood • People-centred: beginning by understanding peoples’ priorities and livelihood strategies. They represent, respectively, gradual and sudden change (have another look at the diagram above to see what these are). But, in a fast-moving technological environment, skills typically become obsolete in a few years. These trends and shocks are sometimes known in livelihoods analysis as the vulnerability context, suggesting that the changes thus represented have potentially harmful effects. The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. These variables make important components of the livelihoods framework i.e. I will return to this point later. A livelihood framework is a tool that can be used to improve our understanding of the multiple components and processes that make up livelihood – particularly the livelihood of the poor. A central notion is that different households have differ- ent access livelihood assets, which the sustainable livelihood approach aims to expand. The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). Such interactions are important in the increasing attention given by policy-makers to interactions between 'social protection' (social transfers and safety nets) and development. For rural livelihoods the ecological, economic (markets), and socio-cultural environments are of particular importance. 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In each of these and other resources in s for analysis5 ‘ system ’ before describing SL! The components of the components of the NREGS and BEEM analysis of system!

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